Fibrillar vs crystalline nanocellulose pulmonary epithelial cell responses

Tidsskriftartikel - 2017

Resume

Nanocellulose (NC) is emerging as a highly promising nanomaterial for a wide range of applications. Moreover, many types of NC are produced, each exhibiting a slightly different shape, size, and chemistry. The main objective of this study was to compare cytotoxic effects of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) and nanofibrillated cellulose (NCF). The human lung epithelial cells (A549) were exposed for 24 h and 72 h to five different NC particles to determine how variations in properties contribute to cellular outcomes, including cytotoxicity, oxidative stress, and cytokine secretion. Our results showed that NCF were more toxic compared to CNC particles with respect to cytotoxicity and oxidative stress responses. However, exposure to CNC caused an inflammatory response with significantly elevated inflammatory cytokines/chemokines compared to NCF. Interestingly, cellulose staining indicated that CNC particles, but not NCF, were taken up by the cells. Furthermore, clustering analysis of the inflammatory cytokines revealed a similarity of NCF to the carbon nanofibers response and CNC to the chitin, a known immune modulator and innate cell activator. Taken together, the present study has revealed distinct differences between fibrillar and crystalline nanocellulose and demonstrated that physicochemical properties of NC are critical in determining their toxicity.

Reference

Menas AL, Yanamala N, Farcas MT, Russo M, Friend S, Fournier PM, Star A, Iavicoli I, Shurin GV, Vogel UB, Fadeel B, Beezhold D, Kisin ER, Shvedova AA. Fibrillar vs crystalline nanocellulose pulmonary epithelial cell responses: Cytotoxicity or inflammation?. Chemosphere 2017;171:671-680.
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2016.12.105

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Dansk Center for Nanosikkerhed