Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors

Tidsskriftartikel - 1997

Resume

This study is part of the EURO-TERVIHT project (Trace Element Reference Values in Human Tissues) which aims at establishing reference intervals for trace elements in blood, urine and other human tissues. In this study, reference intervals (0.05-0.95 fractiles) were estimated for lead in blood (105-529 nmol/l for men, 80-340 nmol/l for women), manganese in blood (100-271 nmol/l) and arsenic in urine (36-541 nmol/l for men, 21-475 nmol/l for women). Upper reference limits (0.95 fractile) were established for chromium in urine (13 nmol/l), nickel in urine (52 nmol/l) and cobalt in urine (23 nmol/l for men, 31 nmol/l for women). The reference group was a Danish subpopulation (n = 189), age 40-70 years. The influence of gender, age, health status parameters, nutrition and various lifestyle factors was investigated. Urinary arsenic and blood lead levels were found to be higher for men than for women. Arsenic levels also increased with age up to 60 years, and then decreased. Alcohol intake lead to increased arsenic levels in urine as well as blood lead levels. Urinary nickel levels were higher in persons frequently eating porridge and porridge oats.

Reference

Kristiansen J, Christensen J, Iversen B, Sabbioni E. Toxic trace element reference levels in blood and urine: influence of gender and lifestyle factors. Sci Tot Environ 1997;204(2):147-160.
doi: 10.1016/S0048-9697(97)00155-1

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