Artboard 2 copy 35Artboard 64 copy 13Artboard 2 copy 19Artboard 2 copy 31Artboard 64 copy 18Artboard 64 copy 10Artboard 64 copy 11Artboard 64 copy 15Artboard 64 copy 12Artboard 64 copy 13Artboard 64 copy 14Artboard 2 copy 34Artboard 64 copy 19Artboard 64 copy 16MinusArtboard 2 copy 44Artboard 2 copy 38Artboard 2 copy 36PlusArtboard 64 copy 17Artboard 2 copy 43Artboard 2 copy 45Artboard 2 copy 46Artboard 64 copy 16Artboard 64 copy 18Artboard 64 copy 19Artboard 64 copy 17

Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of organophosphate esters in a human skin ex vivo model

Tidsskriftartikel - 2018


Organophosphate esters (OPEs) are used as flame retardants, plasticizers, and as hydraulic fluids. They are present in indoor environments in high concentrations compared with other flame retardants, and human exposure is ubiquitous. In this study we provide data for estimating dermal uptake for eight OPEs and ranking in OPEs risk assessment. Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of the OPEs were studied in a Franz diffusion cell system using human skin dosed with a mixture of OPEs in an ethanol:toluene (4:1) solution. Large variation in penetration profiles was observed between the OPEs. The chlorinated OPEs tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), and in particular tris(2-chloroethyl) phosphate (TCEP), penetrated the skin quite rapidly while tris(1,3-dichlor-2-propyl) phosphate (TDCIPP) and triphenyl phosphate (TPHP) tended to build up in the skin tissue and only smaller amounts permeated through the skin. For tris(isobutyl) phosphate (TIBP), tris(n-butyl) phosphate (TNBP), and tris(methylphenyl) phosphate (TMPP) the mass balance was not stable over time indicating possible degradation during the experimental period of 72 h. The rates at which OPEs permeated through the skin decreased in the order TCEP > TCIPP ≥ TBOEP > TIBP ≥ TNBP > TDCIPP > TPHP > TMPP. Generally, the permeation coefficient, kp, decreased with increasing log Kow, whereas lag time and skin deposition increased with log Kow. The present data indicate that dermal uptake is a non-negligible human exposure pathway for the majority of the studied OPEs.


Frederiksen M, Stapleton HM, Vorkamp K, Webster TF, Jensen NM, Sørensen JA, Nielsen F, Knudsen LE, Sørensen LS, Clausen PA, Nielsen JB. Dermal uptake and percutaneous penetration of organophosphate esters in a human skin ex vivo model. Chemosphere 2018;197:185-192.
doi: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2018.01.032

Gå til Tidsskriftartikel