Acute inhalation toxicity after inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles: lung surfactant function inhibition in vitro correlates with reduced tidal volume in mice

Tidsskriftartikel - 2020

Resume

People can be exposed to zinc oxide (ZnO) by inhalation of consumer products or during industrial processes. Zinc oxide nanoparticle (NP) exposure can induce acute inhalation toxicity. The toxicological mechanisms underlying the acute effects on the lungs have long focused on the phagolysosomal dissolution of ZnO NPs in macrophages followed by the release of free Zn2+ ions. However, we postulate an alternative mechanism based on the direct interaction of ZnO NPs with the lung surfactant (LS) layer covering the inside of the alveoli. Therefore, we tested the effect of ZnO NPs and Zn2+ ions on the function of LS in vitro using the constrained drop surfactometer. We found that the ZnO NPs inhibited the LS function, whereas Zn2+ ions did not. To examine the role of lung macrophages in the acute toxicity of inhaled ZnO NPs, mice were treated with Clodrosome, a drug that depletes alveolar macrophages, or Encapsome, the empty carrier of the drug. After macrophage depletion, the mice were exposed to an aerosol of ZnO NPs in whole body plethysmographs recording breathing patterns continuously. Mice in both groups developed shallow breathing (reduced tidal volume) shortly after the onset of exposure to ZnO NPs. This suggests a macrophage-independent mechanism of induction. This study shows that acute inhalation toxicity is caused by ZnO NP interaction with LS, independently of NP dissolution in macrophages.

Reference

Larsen ST, Da Silva E, Hansen JS, Jensen ACØ, Koponen IK, Sørli JB. Acute inhalation toxicity after inhalation of ZnO nanoparticles: lung surfactant function inhibition in vitro correlates with reduced tidal volume in mice. International Journal of Toxicology 2020;39(4):321-327.
doi: 10.1177/1091581820933146

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