NOSACQ-50 translating and testing

Translation procedure for quality assurance:  

Quality assurance of the translation process into other languages is very important in order to guarantee comparable question wording. It is strongly recommended to follow the translation procedure described below when making new translations of NOSACQ. When translating from the English master version of the questionnaire it is important that it is translated to the language and terminology understood by the target population. The questionnaire must use terms (for example ‘safety representative’) used and understood by the population in question (layman’s terms). An important point is not to translate word for word but to emphasise similar understanding, “meaning by meaning”. In translations and adaptations to layman language, the meaning of the questions should be kept as close to the original statement as possible, even if the wording must be changed. 

The translation process must include at least one – preferably two - forward translations (e.g. English to French) and one backward translation (e.g. the translated French to English) - carried out by different persons. In the forward translation one, preferably two, native speakers of the target language translate the questionnaire, and a consensus version is derived.  In the backward translation at least one other person (trained or laymen) familiar with both languages translates the new language version back into English. This is then followed by a consensus meeting whereby the English master version is compared with the backward translated English version. Subsequent revisions are carried out with the new language version with attention being given to clarity, readability, fluency and use of common language/terms. 

Pre-testing new language translations: 

Always pre-test the questionnaire, e.g. on colleagues, and do a final test on representatives of the target population. Ask for comments on anything and consider every comment in subsequent revisions prior to pilot testing. It is important to preserve the exact meaning of questions that are taken from NOSACQ-50 in order to be able to compare the results with other studies using NOSACQ-50, and to be able to be included and allow for benchmarking with studies in the international database. 

Pilot testing new language versions: 

Pilot-testing of each new language version of NOSACQ-50 is required to ensure that the new language version performs similarly to the other versions. This requires advanced statistical techniques, such as confirmatory factor analysis, which should be done in cooperation with the NOSACQ-50 development team ( NOSACQ@NFA.DK ). At least 150 completed questionnaires are required for pilot testing. The participants may be from the same or different companies/branches. 

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