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Copenhagen Burnout Inventory - CBI

Here you can download the Copenhagen Burnout Inventory - CBI questionnaire.

Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Scales used in the PUMA study

Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Scales used in the PUMA study

Copenhagen Burnout Inventory. Normative data from a representative Danish population on Personal Burnout and Results from the PUMA* study on Personal Burnout, Work Burnout, and Client Burnout

PUMA (Project on Burnout, Motivation and Job Satisfaction)

The PUMA project was the first Danish research project on Burnout. The project was started in 1999 and lasted for five years. Approx. 2,000 employees from five different human service occupations participated in PUMA:

  1. Employees in social welfare work.
  2. Employees in institutions for chronically handicapped.
  3. Hospital employees.
  4. Employees in a prison.
  5. Home helpers in a provincial town and in the capital.

All employees – managers as well as staff – filled in questionnaires three times during the five-year study period. After each round of questionnaires the participating worksites were informed about the relevant results. After receiving feedback from the baseline study the worksites decided on possible interventions aiming at improvements of the psychosocial work environment.

The project had several aims:

  • To assess the occurrence of burnout in relevant occupational groups.
  • To analyse causes of burnout. Such causes could be occupational, personal as well as family-related.
  • To study the consequences of burnout prospectively.
  • To evaluate the different interventions made in order to reduce burnout and enhance motivation and job satisfaction.

A further purpose of the study was to analyse the concept of burnout and its relation to other similar concepts such as depression, fatigue, stress, etc. Also, a theoretical discussion of burnout and the preventive potentials was performed.

The purpose of the empirical part of the study was partly analytical, as a number of hypotheses about possible causal associations was tested, and partly descriptive, as the prevalence of burnout in a number of occupational groups was studied. The interventions in PUMA were decided and carried out by the participating worksites to a large extend influenced by the results of the baseline study.

Project Manager: Marianne Borritz. Project Supervisor: Tage S. Kristensen

Present contact person: Senior researcher Thomas Clausen, tcl@nfa.dk


During the mid-1990s Danish unions in the human service sector recognised that an increasing number of their members took long-term sick leave, or applied for re-training or early retirement, because of burnout symptoms.

Although Denmark has one of the largest numbers of employees working in the human service sector in the Western world no major study on burnout had been conducted in Denmark. For these reasons, we designed the study on Burnout, Motivation and Job satisfaction (Danish acronym: PUMA), a five-year prospective intervention study on burnout in the human service sector.